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These years, the table of common people is richer and richer, everybody is taller and taller also to the healthy nutrition requirement of food.What is nutritious and healthy?People also have their own summary, one of which is "four legs than two legs, two legs than no legs".This "without leg", it is to point to the aquatic product with rich category namely.
Aquatic products not only taste delicious, but also high protein, low fat, but also contain more unsaturated fatty acids, is a very ideal health food, no wonder we love to eat.
But eat breed aquatic product, many people also have worry.For example, will aquaculture water be qualified and will the pollution exceed the standards?Will antibiotics exceed the standard in the breeding process?A few additive entered fish abdomen along with bait, also entered the stomach of za finally?
Aquaculture is concerned not only with common people table, also concern with zoology environment.If the density of farming, structure is not scientific, may cause water pollution, bad our green water and green mountains!For our stomach, bad our water, this price is too big, really not worth it.
It is because "fish farming" involves many aspects that 10 departments including the ministry of agriculture and village and the ministry of ecological environment jointly issued several opinions on accelerating the green development of aquaculture recently, in order to solve the existing problems, eliminate everyone's concerns and let aquaculture step into the green development track.
Aquaculture density is high, the layout is unreasonable, the existing aquaculture industry to become "green"
Fishing for fish, shrimp and crabs in natural waters is not enough to make people eat cheap and high-quality aquatic products.China has always been a big country in aquaculture. Yu kangzhen, vice-minister of agriculture and rural affairs, said at a press conference held by the state council office that China is the only major fishery country in the world where the total amount of aquaculture products exceeds the total amount of fishing.In 2018, the total output of aquaculture will exceed 50 million tons, accounting for more than 78 percent of China's total output of aquatic products.
However, there are many problems in the aquaculture industry. The unreasonable distribution and industrial structure of aquaculture in some places and the excessively high density of aquaculture in some areas have not only affected the quality of aquatic products, but also brought environmental pollution.
For example, artificial aquaculture of aquatic products in lakes increases the burden on lakes, leading to the occurrence of eutrophication.The algae bloom in taihu lake is well known. Although the weather was a factor, the lake's eutrophication was the main cause.Even though some Seine nets have been cleaned after the incident, by 2008, the cultivation area of Seine nets in taihu lake was still 204,000 mu, emitting a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus and other pollutants.
'on the one hand, the continuous expansion of economic and social development and land for construction has severely squeezed the space for aquaculture waters,' Mr. Yu said.On the other hand, the layout of aquaculture is not reasonable. For example, the density of aquaculture cages in some areas is too high, and the enclosure of aquaculture cages in reservoirs and lakes is too dense.
Aiming at the existing problem of aquaculture, "opinion" article 26 specific policy measures are put forward to strengthen scientific layout, the transformation of the mode of cultivation, improve the breeding environment, strengthening the production regulation making arrangements and so on, the purpose is to green development concept throughout the course of aquaculture production, adopts the system of the ecological health of aquaculture, play to aquaculture in ShanShuiLinTian HuCao system management of ecological service function, develop the high quality, features, green, ecology of aquatic products.
Aquaculture and pollution cannot be equated
In the traditional extensive aquaculture model, the use of a large amount of feed and some prohibited fishery drugs and chemical agents, together with the fish excreta sunk into the water, increases the pollution of agricultural non-point sources and has a negative impact on the water quality.Taking taihu lake as an example, the area of Seine net breeding has been reduced from 204,000 mu to 45,000 mu, and now it has all been withdrawn. The water quality of taihu lake has been improving continuously, and there have been gratifying changes.
So, what is the relationship between aquaculture and water pollution?Is it necessary to stop all aquaculture in order to ensure the safety of the aquatic ecological environment?
In fact, aquaculture and pollution are not synonymous, "fish and bear PAWS" can be both.
Aquatic organisms, including aquaculture products, are an important part of the entire aquatic ecological environment, yu said.The ecological environment of water should be better without aquatic organisms. The two are a community of life.Some local aquaculture pollutes the environment, mainly because the relationship between the two has not been properly handled.
An expert who has studied aquaculture environmental protection for nearly 30 years told ma la sister that nitrogen and phosphorus do have an impact on the water quality of rivers and lakes in particular, but not so much on some offshore waters.In mariculture, as long as the nitrogen and phosphorus emission of the species and the organic ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus absorption of the species, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of water quality problems can be effectively solved.
According to introducing, at present, aquaculture can be divided into fish, shrimp, crab roughly from breed an object, shellfish, alga to wait for a few kinds big.There are two types of breeding methods, one is the bait type, the other is not the bait type.Only the high density and unreasonable bait farming will have a great impact on the environment.
Shellfish and filter fish such as silver and bighead fish in mariculture and freshwater aquaculture in China are non bait aquaculture species.Among them, shellfish accounted for 83% of the total mariculture, filter - feeding silver carp and bighead fish accounted for 25% of the total freshwater aquaculture.These breed breed to having good purify rehabilitative effect to the environment.It is estimated that in 2016, the silver carp and bighead alone could eliminate about 370,000 tons of nitrogen and 140,000 tons of phosphorus from the water.
In addition, a study by the Chinese academy of engineering shows that Marine shellfish farming has a highly effective "carbon sequestration" effect.Farmed shellfish remove even more carbon, up to nearly 900,000 tonnes.Shellfish farming alone could remove more than 1.2 million tonnes of carbon a year, equivalent to afforestation of 500,000 hectares a year.
The "opinions" will improve the breeding environment, as an important part of the green development of aquaculture industry, put forward a number of measures such as scientific setting cage network enclosure, the development of aquaculture tail water and waste management.At the same time, it is also emphasized that the ecological attributes of aquaculture should be brought into full play, and the development of non-baited filter fish and shallow sea shellfish aquaculture should be encouraged.
Control the feed and water quality to ensure the quality and safety of aquatic products
According to the dietary guidelines for Chinese residents, fish should be the first choice for animal-based food, and the recommended daily intake of aquatic products should be more than 40 grams.However, in fact, China's current daily per capita intake is only about 30 grams, which is 56% of the global per capita level, and there is a big gap from the recommended minimum intake.
Zhang xianliang, director of the fisheries bureau of the ministry of agriculture and village, said that the overall quality and safety of aquatic products in China is stable, with the qualified rate of 6 consecutive years of supervision and spot check at more than 99%.China's aquatic product consumption market still has a lot of room for development, I hope you eat more aquatic products.
In response to people's concerns about the indiscriminate use of pesticides in aquaculture, zhang xianliang said that in terms of ensuring the quality and safety of aquatic products, the ministry of agriculture and village has always adhered to the combination of production and management, addressing both the symptoms and root causes, and playing a "combination".The opinions also put forward three measures:
First, strengthen input management.We will strengthen supervision of the quality of feed, veterinary drugs and other inputs used in aquaculture, strengthen guidance on the use of drugs in aquaculture, and severely crack down on the production and sale of fake and substandard feed, veterinary drugs, illegal drugs and other inputs used in aquaculture.
Second, strengthen quality and safety supervision.We will strengthen the responsibility of local supervision of aquatic product quality and safety, implement the main responsibility of producers and operators for the quality and safety of aquatic products, intensify the monitoring and evaluation of the quality and safety risks of aquatic products produced in the production areas and the intensity of supervision and random inspection, and encourage producers and operators to establish and improve the traceability system for aquatic products produced in aquaculture, and promote the construction of an industry integrity system.
Third, we will strengthen disease prevention and control.We will improve the aquatic animal disease prevention and control system, strengthen the monitoring, early warning, risk assessment and emergency response of aquatic animal diseases, improve the ranks of official fishery veterinarians, fully implement quarantine inspection and supervision and law enforcement in the areas where aquatic seedlings are raised, optimize the approval process for vaccines used in aquaculture, and accelerate the promotion and application of vaccines.
"The development of aquaculture industry will not only provide the people with high-quality, safe, green and ecological aquatic products, but also bring back the beautiful scenery of clear water, green Banks and shallow fish.The vision of green aquaculture expressed by yu kangzhen is also the expectation of every one of us